Focus groups

A focus group is a set of participants researchers gather for qualitative research purposes to engage in a guided discussion about a predetermined topic.


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Focus groups are a qualitative research method. Qualitative research involves collecting information about personal experiences through human interaction or written text. This can lead to richer data than quantitative research, which only collects numerical data.

A focus group involves an organized discussion among a small group of people, usually between six to 12 participants. A skilled moderator usually guides the group's discussion.

During a focus group session, participants share their thoughts, attitudes, experiences, and opinions about a specific topic, product, or service.  

Many fields—including marketing, psychology, sociology, and product development—use focus groups to gain real-world insights into what participants think about the topic being discussed.  

Key focus group components and characteristics

Several important components and characteristics make up a focus group.


The moderator guides the focus group's discussion. This person's main responsibilities are to:

  • Encourage conversation
  • Ask open-ended questions
  • Ensure all participants have a chance to speak
  • Maintain a neutral, unbiased stance

A skilled moderator can help participants provide valuable responses.


In a focus group, the participants should represent the target audience. Diversity in the group can enhance the range of perspectives. However, researchers may prefer participants from a particular group or market segment. How a researcher chooses to build a focus group will depend on their research goals.

Discussion guide

A discussion guide is a set of questions and topics. The moderator uses it to lead the session. Using the guide makes sure the focus group session covers the most important areas.

The guide is usually flexible. This lets the moderator adapt to the conversation flow and dig deeper into issues or observations as they come up.


Focus groups should take place in a comfortable, controlled setting, such as a meeting room. This minimizes distractions so that the participants stay focused on the discussion and also allows the researchers to get a clear recording of the conversation. 

Recording and transcription

Researchers record all focus group sessions to capture everything that’s said during the discussion. Some researchers only make audio recordings, but some prefer video recordings. Researchers transcribe the recordings after the session. This allows them to find themes and patterns that lead to insights.

Purpose and applications

Focus groups serve a variety of purposes.

Market research

Organizations often use focus groups to help them understand consumer preferences. They can also use focus groups to test marketing strategies or to gather feedback about products or services. This helps identify consumer needs and expectations.

Product development

Focus groups let companies incorporate real user feedback into the design process. This allows them to develop or refine products based on their target audience's preferences.

Psychological and sociological research

In psychology and sociology, researchers often use focus groups because this method allows researchers to explore people's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. The information gathered during focus groups can be used to build social and psychological theories.

Policy and program evaluation

Governments and nonprofit organizations also use focus groups. This can help them get public input and identify areas for improvement. The detailed feedback focus groups provide can also help these organizations assess the effectiveness of policies and programs.

Advertising and media

Advertisers and media companies use focus groups to test advertising campaigns, content, and media programming to ensure they resonate with their target audiences.

Focus group challenges and considerations

While focus groups offer many advantages, they also come with challenges and considerations.

  • Sampling bias: The focus group’s participant composition can affect the results. Researchers must be sure to choose participants representing the target population or audience.
  • Moderator influence: The moderator's skills and demeanor can impact the discussion. To prevent bias, moderators should stay neutral and avoid asking leading questions.
  • Small sample size: Focus groups usually involve a small number of participants. The small sample size may limit their findings' usefulness. That's why researchers often use focus groups along with other research methods.
  • Group dynamics: Group dynamics can influence participant responses. For example, some people may be more vocal, while others change their opinions to avoid rocking the boat. 
  • Data analysis: Analyzing focus group data takes time. Interpreting the data may be subjective. Researchers need to use established methods to identify and report accurate findings.

Because focus group feedback can influence decision-making processes, researchers must remain mindful of these challenges when collecting and interpreting data.